What started off as an armed rebellion in northern Mali in 2013 has now spread beyond the Sahel into Togo and Ivory Coast.
The United Nations refugee agency is appealing for more than $200m to cope with a wave of displaced people who have fled violence in the Sahel region.
Armed groups with bases in Mali have spread their attacks into Niger and Burkina Faso.
At least 4,000 people were killed in the three countries last year.
Al Jazeera’s Nicolas Haque reports.